A urine test called MyProstateScore developed at the University of Michigan can avoid one-third of unnecessary prostate cancer biopsies, according to a validation study of more than 1,500 patients.
The MyProstateScore test, developed by the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center, measures levels of cancer-specific genes. Half of all prostate tumors contain a genetic anomaly so the genes TMPRSS2 and ERG relocate on a chromosome and fuse together, which switches on prostate cancer (Journal of Urology, March 2021, Vol. 205:3, pp. 732-739).
MyProstateScore is calculated using serum prostate specific antigen, urinary prostate cancer antigen 3, and urinary TMPRSS2:ERG to determine the presence of prostate cancer.
Dr. Jeffrey Tosoian and colleagues at the University of Michigan enrolled 1,525 patients and found 22% (338 men) had grade group ≥ 2 cancer on biopsy. Using a MyProstateScore threshold of 10 resulted in 97% sensitivity and 98% negative predictive value for grade group ≥ 2 cancer.
The MyProstateScore test would have prevented 387 unnecessary biopsies and missed 10 grade group ≥ 2 cancers, according to the researchers.
Using a MyProstateScore threshold of ≤ 10 resulted in 96% sensitivity and 97% negative predictive value and could prevent 32% of unnecessary biopsies while missing 3.7% of grade group ≥ 2 cancers, they added.
Tosoian and two of his co-authors have founded a startup, LynxDX, to commercialize the test.